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A visual of people as "CHNOPS+20E" existives, on the so-called "Thims periodic table" (Haghi, 2018), as printed in Libb Thims 2020 draft version of Human Chemical Thermodynamics.[1][2]

In hmolscience, CHNOPS+20E, formula: , is shorthand notation for the physico-chemical definition of a human, in terms of element mass composition, in a semi-formulaic fashion, as a CHNOPS plus twenty element (+20E) based “phase” (Adams, 1908), “combination” (Ostwald, 1926), “substance” (Thone, 1936), “system” (Armstrong, 1964), “organism” (Morowitz, 1968), “matrix” (Swan, 1974), “molecule” (Sterner, 2000), or “mega-molecule” (Solare, 2009).[3] The notation CHNOPS+20E, in more detail, refers to the measured fact that a human, as per mass composition definition, is a powered 26-element animate atomic geometry, comprised of the core six elements: C, H, N, O, P, S, i.e. the “CHNOPS” base elements, plus (+) the following twenty (20) elements (E): Ca, K, Cl, Na, Mg, Fe, F, Zn, Si, Cu, B, I, Sn, Mn, Se, Cr, Ni, Mo, Co, and V.


The following table, a subsection from the larger historical physico-chemical definitions of a “human” table, gives an historical overview of the origination and development of the CHNOPS+ definition of a human, shown with terms "bolded" in respect to first historical usage:[3]

Development of the Powered CHNOPS+20E Definition of a Human
Term Author Date
1. Phase [4] Henry Adams 1908
2. C-H-N-O-S-P combination Wilhelm Ostwald 1926
3. Evolved "CHNOPS" plus substance Frank Thone 1936
4. CHNOPS system George Armstrong 1964
5. CHNOPS organism Harold Morowitz 1968
6. Powered CHNOPS+ matrix Henry Swan 1974
7. 22-element reactive abstract molecule [5] Robert Sterner & James Elser 2000
8. 26-element reactive molecule Libb Thims 2002
9. HOCN based mega-molecule Rohann Solare 2009
10. 26-element energy / heat-driven [6] atomic structure Kalyan Annamalai & Carlos Silva | Thims citation 2011
11. 22-element formula Neil Shubin | Sterner citation 2013
12. Powered [7] surface-attached coupled [8] 26-element turnover-rate [9] freely-running [10] molecule Libb Thims 2013
13. Solar-powered [11] atomic geometry Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2014
14. CHNOPS+20 chemical species Libb Thims 2015
15. Powered CHNOPS+20 [12] molecule Libb Thims 2015
16. Electrochemical process Anon | Thims citation (Ѻ) 2015
17. Powered CHNOPS+20 phase [13] Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2016
18. CxHy+24 element thing [14] Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2017
19. Powered CHNOPS+20 thing (Ѻ) Libb Thims (Ѻ) 2018
20. Powered CHNOPS+20 element existive [15] Libb Thims 2020
21. Powered CHNOPS+20E [16] existive Libb Thims 2020



The following are related quotes:

“ I am made from the C-H-N-O-S-P combination from which a Bunsen, Helmholtz, Kirchhoff came.”
Wilhelm Ostwald (1926), Lifelines: an Autobiography [17]; compare Carl Sagan (1980)


  1. Thims, Libb. (2020). Human Chemical Thermodynamics — Chemical Thermodynamics Applied to the Humanities: Meaning, Morality, Purpose; Sociology, Economics, Ecology; History, Philosophy, Government, Anthropology, Politics, Business, Jurisprudence; Religion, Relationships, Warfare, and Love (§1.3:Periodic Table]) (pdf). Publisher.
  2. Haghi, A.K. (2018). Methodologies and Applications for Analytical and Physical Chemistry (co-authors: Sabu Thomas, Sukanchan Palit, Priyanka Main) (Thims “human molecular” periodic table of element, pg. #). CRC.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Human (WikiFoundry subdomain) – Hmolpedia 2020.
  4. Note: the term “phase” (see: social phase), refers to the definition of a human as a “phase” as Willard Gibbs (1876) defines phases, in chemical thermodynamics, or isothermal-isobaric physico-chemical states of existences. It is a complicated term, to say the least.
  5. Note A: the definition of a human as a “molecule”, originated in the 1789 writings of Jean Sales who defined a human as a “human molecule”.
    Note B: the definition of a human as a “molecule”, in the early 20th century, has resulted in a certain amount of like (see: I AM a molecule) and also dislike (see: I am NOT a molecule, argument, repugnance (see: video, “objections to” section (Ѻ), and thread. Certainly, if a “molecule”, by definition, is a thing comprised of two or more atoms, then a human is indeed a molecule or a “mega-molecule” (Solare, 2009). However, things such as metabolism and turnover rate, complicate the simplistic model of the basic molecule, for example, as a two-element molecule.
    Note B: alternative “molecule” synonyms, as employed in use (above table), include: combination, substance, system, matrix, atomic structure, atomic geometry, chemical species, process, thing, existive, or elemental existive.
  6. Note: the term “heat-driven” (Annamalai, 2011) is a physico-chemically neutral terminology alternative to the now-defunct (Thims, 2009) term “alive”, in the sense that one cannot, technically, say that a human is a “living atomic structure”, per reason that life does not exist (see: abioism.
  7. Note: the usage of “powered” here (Thims, 2013) is a reference to Henry Swan’s 1974 introduction of defining an organism as a “powered” CHNOPS+ matrix; this works as a physico-chemical neutral terminology upgrade (see: life terminology upgrades) in replacement for the now-defunct term “living” (Thims, 2009), such as formerly employed in terms such as “living molecule”, “living earth”, “living universe”, or defining a human as a “living mega-molecule”, etc.
  8. Note A: the term “coupled”, employed here (Thims, 2013), is a reference to “social coupling theory”, meaning that endergonic social reactions are “coupled”, in Fritz Lippman (1941) sense of the matter (see: coupling), to exergonic social reactions. This, however, is a very advanced topic.
    Note B: An outline of “social coupling theory”, in terms of Gibbs energies, is summarized in the 2015 Atheism for Kids video lectures (e.g. lecture #11).
  9. Note: the term “turnover rate” (Thims, 2013) is a reference to the 1949 atomic turnover radioisotope studies (see: turnover rate) of Paul Aebersold, who found that 98 percent of the atoms of organism “turned over”, i.e. replaced with new atoms.
  10. Note: the “freely-running” (Thims, 2013) is a reference to Gilbert Lewis’ 1923 distinction of a reaction which “runs freely, like the combustion of a fuel, or the action of an acid on a metal” as compared to a chemical process that is in some way “harnessed for the production of useful work” (see: freely-running).
  11. Note: in respect to defining the humans as “solar-powered” things, while in the big picture view of things this is true, in the sense that all animation seen above or below the surface of the earth is ultimately derived from heat input from the sun, when we look at the specific mechanism of what “powers” or “drives” a human, we see that, in an evolutionary psychology mechanistic sense of things, (a) we acknowledge that humans are foodstuff-powered, firstly, and (b) the photon exchange force of sensory stimuli, e.g. visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli, also act as powerful drivers of human movement, such as seen in the phenomenon of love and war and the general developed passions of human existence, which cannot simply be classified as “solar-powering” phenomena.
  12. Note: the use of the “+” symbol here (Thims, 2015), which was employed on Thims poster card periodic table that he used during the “Atheism for Kids” lecture, is a symbol shorthand for Frank Throne’s 1934 article picture of a sun-powered plant labeled as a “Chnops Plus” system, defining a plant as a solar-powered system made of the six CHNOPS elements "plus" the elements potassium and calcium, among a few others, as he was able to determine at the time.
  13. Note: the usage of the term “phase” here (Thims, 2016), is reference to Henry Adams’ 1908 definition of himself as a “phase” (see: social phase), as per Willard Gibbs (1876) defines phases, chemical thermodynamically.
  14. Note: the term “thing”, employed here (Thims, 2017), is a reference to famous “thing philosophy”, employed by various, pre-Christian era, Roman and Greek philosopher.
  15. Note: the term “existive” (see: existive), used here (Thims, 2020), is a c.2013 Hmolpedia-introduced term, employed as a physico-chemically neutral terminology alternative to “alive”, such as needed in the drafting of the “smartest person alive” article turned video series, per reason that, in the modern day and age, the “smartest person alive” would know that they are NOT alive, technically speaking; the term “existive” also is employed in the Aristotle style or way of defining things as “existents”.
  16. Note: the exact date as to when the “20E” shorthand, where “E = Element”, was first used by Thims remains to be tracked down (e.g. it is not found in Aug Hmolpedia2020 pdf); it seems to have been first employed in the early 2020 draft versions of HCT; also employed in the Sep 2020 launching homepage of the new wiki to define a human, in the simplest possible manner.
  17. (a) Ostwald, Wilhelm. (1926-27). Lifelines: an Autobiography (Lebenslinien. Eine Selbstbiographie) (in two or three volumes). Berlin: Klasing & Co.
    (b) Farber, Eduard. (1961). Great Chemists (§:Wilhelm Ostwald, pgs. 1019-30; quote, pg. 1021). Interscience Publishers.

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