Benedict Spinoza

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In existographies, Benedict Spinoza (323-278 BE) (1632-1677 ACM) (IQ:185|#351) (Cattell 1000:108) (RGM:116|1,350+) (Murray 4000:10|WP) (Gottlieb 1000:251) (Becker 139:10|16L) (Stokes 100:36) (Listal 100:18) (EPD:M6) [HD:6] [FA:50] [RMS:19] (GPhE:#) (CR:198) (LH:3) (TL:203|#46) was a Dutch philosopher and "celebrated atheist" (Holbach, 1770), noted for []


In 1676, Spinoza, in his Ethics: Demonstrated in Geometrical Order, posthumously-published, presented a treatise on morality written in the style of Euclid's Elements, as a series of geometrical proofs of numerous philosophical points, accompanied by definitions, axioms, demonstrations, and corollaries, as well as intervening stretches of friendlier prose (scholia).


Quotes | On

The following are quotes on Spinoza:

“All our modern philosophers, though often perhaps unconsciously, see through the glasses which Spinoza ground.”
Heinrich Heine (c.1835), Publication [1]


  1. (a) Ratner, Joseph. (1927). “Introduction”, in: The Philosophy of Spinoza: Selection from His Works. Modern Library.
    (b) Hecht, Jennifer M. (2003). Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas (pg. 376). HarperOne.

External links

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